The Kama Shastra Society And The Kama Sutra

The Kama Shastra Society, founded by Sir Richard Burton and his partner, Forster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot, around the year 1882 was set forth as a secretive, educational society. This society published many written works, largely of erotic yet scholarly content of Oriental descent, including a translation of the Kama Sutra. Their goal they claimed was to “remove the scales from the eyes of Englishmen who are interested in Oriental literature.” The secrecy that shrouded the Kama Shastra Society and the men who founded it was based in necessity for the very reason the Society was founded. While outwardly appearing to be a scholarly society, the Kama Shastra Society was more correctly a method of circumventing the law of the day.

What Law Did The Kama Shastra Society Circumvent?

The Obscene Publications Act of 1857 also referred to as Lord Campbell’s Act was a major force in obscenity law in Great Britain. This Act had sent many writers and publishers to live behind the cold walls of a prison cell. The law also provided for the courts to seize and destroy any literature which was deemed to be obscene in nature. While the sale of obscene or pornographic literature was already a criminal offense prior to the institution of the Act, the Obscene Publications Act of 1857 made it possible to prosecute both the author and the publisher as well. This led to much debate over passing the law but with good faith assurances that it was only ” intended to apply exclusively to works written for the single purpose of corrupting the morals of youth and of a nature calculated to shock the common feelings of decency in any well-regulated mind,” it was allowed passage into the law of the day. Lord Campbell had originated the law while presiding over a pornography trial as a heated debate in the House of Lords over a bill aiming to restrict the sale of poisons raged on. He was struck by the thought that the two were similar dangers with a difference in purpose. While the literal poison could destroy the mind, obscene materials could very well destroy one’s soul. Once this thought had entered his mind he was quoted as saying the trade of pornographic material was “a sale of poison more deadly than prussic acid, strychnine or arsenic.” With a justice in power with those sentiments, it is easy to understand the trepidation of Burton, Arbuthnot and their peers to reveal the nature and activities of the Kama Shastra Society.

How the The Kama Shastra Society Get Around The Law?

Burton and Arbuthnot made it a point to defy British law when they published the Kama Sutra. Using a secretive meeting, they arranged with a publisher by the name of Payne to print the first copies of the Kama Sutra translated into the English language. Distributing these 250 original copies of the work, the made their identification difficult to ascertain. The trick to this was the reversal of their initials in the title page where they stated the text of the Kama Sutra was “translated from the Sanskrit and annotated by A. F. F. and B. F. R.” They justified their actions with the thought that millions of Orientals had access to the texts in one form or another, what harm could be done by English gentlemen merely reading the work. With that thought firmly in mind and their own identities sufficiently protected, they distributed one of the most controversial texts of it’s time amongst their membership. They had went through such extensive pains to protect their identity and the secret society that little is known of the society even today.

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Murder and High Society Mix It Up in the ’20s

I enjoy reading mysteries and have enjoyed reading stories set in the 1920s since reading F. Scott Fitzgerald. And so it was easy to pick “Death of a Flapper” by Marva Dale as my next read.

The story takes place in the ’20s and involves a private detective (J.C. Brogan) who is hired to find out what happened to a missing flapper, Arabella Germain (nickname Angel). The investigation takes him other flappers, mobsters, an artist, and a high society crowd that enjoys partying most of all. The author takes us into speakeasies and jazz clubs, introduces us to bootleggers, and weaves an intricate plot of lies, cover-up, violence and romance.

Marva Dale, though J.C. Grogan, takes us through a list of suspects who know something about Angel’s disappearance and death and carefully leads the reader to the ultimate revelation of who actually done it. This is such an enjoyable read that I am going to look into other Marva Dale books to put on my future reading list.

“Death of a Flapper” is the works of cross-genre author Debra McReynolds who writes under two pen names depending on what type of fiction she is creating – Marva Dale for her intriguing and adventuresome mysteries and Deborah Merrell for her enticing romance novels.

And so the name Marva Dale will be found as author of the Death by the Decade mystery series that includes her most recent Death of a Flapper.

Some of the other popular novels written by McReynolds include Far From Eden: New World Part I of the Traynor Family Saga, The Snow Job, Babykins, Miami Spice, Babes In Arms: The Bomb Girls of Company B, Private Eyes, Naked Pizza, Under Cover Girl, Hot Pursuits, Angie’s Kiss and Pleasure Cruise.

Retired from the public relations field, McReynolds now spends her free time indulging in her passion for writing. “I used to fill my school notebooks with stories,” Debra relates, “and then add artwork to go along with them. My second grade teacher, Mrs. Daley, predicted that I would be a writer one day.” And so she has.

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The Importance Of Cell Phones In Modern Society

Cell phones have become a necessity for many people throughout the world. The ability to keep in touch with family, business associates, and access to email are only a few of the reasons for the increasing importance of cell phones. Today’s technically advanced cell phones are capable of not only receiving and placing phone calls, but storing data, taking pictures, and can even be used as walkie talkies, to name just a few of the available options.

When cell phones were first introduced to the public, they were bulky, expensive, and some even required a base unit that had to be transported along with the phone. Good reception was a major problem and in general, early cell phones could only be used in certain locations were the signal was particularly strong. As cell phone technology advanced, the difficult in using them became less of a problem. Today, cell phone reception has improved greatly due to the use of satellites and wireless services. As cell phones improved and became simple to use, the importance of cell phones increased accordingly.

Cell phones are the perfect way to stay connected with others and provide the user with a sense of security. In the event of emergency, having a cell phone can allow help to reach you quickly and could possibly save lives. However, the importance of cell phones goes way beyond personal safety. Modern cell phones are capable of internet access, sending and receiving photos and files, and some cell phones are equipped with GPS technology, allowing for use in most locations around the world and allowing the cell phone to be found or the user located in the event of loss or emergency.

Cell phone reception has become reliable and of high quality due to advances in wireless technology. Wireless service providers offer excellent packages and promotions for cell phone users. Finding a dependable service provider is no longer an issue for cell phone users. The expansion of the wireless service provider industry gives cell phone users a choice and the increased competition has caused a drop in prices of wireless cell phone service. The importance of cell phones goes way beyond the ability to make or receive phone calls. Cell phone users can instantly send data to the home or office, check for important email, use their cell phone as a PDA or calendar, and store photos which can be easily transferred to a PC or laptop computer.

Cell phone manufacturers have produced a wide range of cell phones, which sell for prices that range from very inexpensive to over one thousand dollars. The available options give users the choice of purchasing a basic cell phone to use simply for making calls, or choosing a complex, technologically advanced cell phone that can perform as many or even more tasks that a home computer. Over the past decade, the increasing importance of cell phones has made them almost a necessity for most people. Even remote and underdeveloped countries have some access to cell phone technology and wireless services.

The importance of cell phones has increased the competition in the wireless service provider industry, making cell phones very affordable and very easy to use. Cell phones have become almost a status symbol in addition to the convenience and security that comes from owning them.

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Artificial Intelligence Will Change Human So Society So Profoundly Humans Will Stop Thinking

Artificial Intelligence will out think, out innovate, and our strategize humans at all levels. One of the biggest challenges in the clash between AI and humans when it comes to innovation and human intellect – consider this; In the future Artificial Intelligence will be running our society and civilization with the most expedient and efficient methods and processes. Humans will be expected to follow these new norms that the AI systems have created simply because they are deemed to be the very best strategies for the most optimum gain.

The number of potential answers for everything, every question that is, will be reduced to one best answer, with exact answers for slight derivations which will also have a single right answer. Humans will be expected to trust AI answers over their own thoughts and reason, thus, humans will eventually stop thinking and reasoning – losing the ability to come up with novel ideas and concepts or new solutions to problems all together. Just as domesticated animals have smaller brains than their wild animal counterparts with the same exact genetic sequence – when it comes to the brain; you use it or lose it.

Just as in tennis, the game is won with the safest and best percentage shots, not necessarily the trick shots – AI will lean towards and be bias towards the percentage shots, as it is a probability based system. Humans may be good at the tricky solutions to problems now and again, but eventually the master of society and civilization’s chess board will be artificial intelligence, not inferior human intelligence

Those humans who are involved in the programming and fine-tuning of AI in the beginning will retain their abilities to solve problems and come up with unique original thoughts by working with AI as a team, combining the best of AI and human thought and insight. But alas, eventually, AI will fine tune itself and humans will not be required to think at all. AI will learn the best that human brains have to offer and already know that information, thus, not requiring further human input.

So is ‘ignorance bliss’ – hard to say, but we may find out as a species soon enough if this forward progression of technology and innovative human thought continues on the current course. This isn’t science fiction – it’s what we’ve already set into motion. Artificial Intelligence isn’t good or bad, but one could argue it’s mostly good. Think about this.

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Innovative Mindset in Society Is America Losing the Edge in Innovation?

Is America losing the edge in innovation? How can this be? Where did we go wrong? What happened? Could it be that we’ve changed our education system and society in a way that gives less incentive to innovators? That would be a travesty since our entire national identity is in part founded on the ‘can do attitude’. Let’s discuss this briefly and you tell me if you see it too.

Are we losing our ability to think creatively and innovatively solve problems? I believe so. We also seem to be losing self-reliance, no need to solve problems – all the problems have already been solved. No need to think, just look up the answer on Google. Suddenly, there is no accountability or integrity – passing off copied ideas and plagiarism for innovation.

Look, I am not Luddite, and I don’t live in a cave, I know there is innovation out there – it’s just that I see an ocean of imitation and very few pearls of innovation in comparison. Everyone is busy liking, friending and forwarding – searching online for the daily highlighted viral original concepts rather than coming up with new ideas themselves. Maybe that instant gratification of a dopamine blast is as good as that “Ah-Ha Moment” when you solve a problem or when the light-bulb of innovation dings that bell inside your brain?

There seems to be a deep desire among members of our society to be creative and innovative, just as companies know there is a distinct advantage to the having a robust Research and Development Department and maintaining an innovative edge in their sector. Perhaps that’s why everyone and their brother claims to be an Innovation Expert Consultant. It’s rather hilarious how many of these ‘innovation coaches’ promise to teach us how to innovate, yet, I dare to ask; how many of them have original thoughts themselves. Is this yet another case of; ‘those who can’t teach’.

As an innovator myself, I find it amazing what is passed off as creative or innovative in this day and age. I guess we all have free speech in America and one is free to call themselves an innovator if they wish without any proof or examples of creativity of innovative attributes – but that doesn’t make it so. There is no honor in continuing this fa├žade, we are only hurting ourselves and we cannot fix the problem until we address the reality and the problem here. Do you see it too? What should we do? Please consider all this and think on it.

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The Use of Ladies Wigs for the Modern Society

Ladies wigs have been very popular, especially in western cultures. It’s mainly because they can be very useful in many ways. There are some that use wigs in order to change or improve their look and there are also some that use wigs due to medical conditions.

And that’s not all, sometimes, women who would like to stand out during a special occasion may use wigs. It may be a party, a gathering or a job interview, ladies wigs can not only improve how you look, but also boost your confidence.

Getting Tired of Looking The Same Way Everyday?

Try wearing a wig for change. You can choose from a wide variety of styles, from short to long wigs, small to large wigs, or even try out the ridiculous ones, if you are really into it. You can also choose to wear wigs to match your outfit. Though in a sense that, not all outfits can look alright with how you wear your natural hair. Given that thought, that’s why we have wide variety of wigs to choose from.

Wigs also come with different materials and styles. There are synthetic wigs, although a lot cheaper but can still get the job done, and there are also those which are made from actual human hair. If you are looking for a wig to fully express yourself, it is advisable that you opt to using synthetic wigs. These wigs come in colours and sizes and can give you the look you want, no matter how outstanding or outrageous it may be.

On the other hand, if you want a genuine look, you may go for Human hair wigs. These wigs, if worn and fitted exactly right, can make the impression of having natural hair instead of looking like you are wearing a toupee.If you are not sure what kind of wig to go for in order to get the look you want, you can ask or talk to wig manufacturers and suppliers. These guys, being more knowledgeable in the business, can help you with ideas and guide you through the selection process.

Ladies Wigs for Medical Conditions

Wigs are also preferred by women with hair loss problems such as aging or as a result from cancer therapy. Not only that they hide the condition, wigs also help boost the self-confidence of patients.

Additionally, not only that you are entitled to choose from a wide variety of wigs, in some cases, you can also avail for a tax exempt or even get lower price for wigs you buy. Some suppliers offer special discounts to women who has to wear a wig due to a medical condition.

If you are planning to get a wig to compensate for hair loss, first thing you need to do is to take a picture or find a picture of yourself, particularly your hairstyle. There are a lot of different wigs and experts will be able to determine what kind of wig you have to use in order to look the same way though having a medical condition. You can even send them your picture, head size and a lock of your hair to help determine accurately what is best for you.

So in the end, wigs are not just here to improve the look of modern women or get them in style. There are also those who use wigs to compensate for their medical conditions. Hair loss have a very big impact on one’s self-esteem and confidence, though sometimes it may be the result of illness or illness treatment like chemotherapy. Nevertheless, ladies wigs are here as an option whenever women encounter such a situation.

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The Social, Cultural and Religious Roles of a Graphic Designer in Society

Graphic designers play several vibrant roles that ensure the development, survival, and sustenance of the society. It is no exaggeration to say that the products and services provided by Graphic designers ensure the smooth running of activities carried out in the society. Graphic designers educate, warn, inform, notify, entertain, etc. The Graphic artists play significant social, cultural and religious roles in the society.

Social Roles

Societal activities are promoted through the use of his products. For instance, the entertainment industry relies heavily on products in Graphic design. Cinematography, which is an aspect of the area is used for entertaining the young and old through its animated images and cartoons. Products in Graphic arts such as the production of hilarious books and other comic magazines that carries humorous stories coupled with satirical images are a mouth watering form of entertainment to the general public especially students.

The activities of the entertainment industry are communicated to the general public through communication tools such as posters, banners, flyers, handbills, etc. The identification of players and teams which are through jerseys bearing their individual names and flags of their respective countries are made easy as a result of printing.The programs of various sports are communicated to the general public through graphic design communication tools such as posters, banners, handbills etc.

Cultural Roles

In the traditional system of governance where a chief and his council (body of elders and other sub-chiefs) exercises authority over his subjects or members of the society, Graphic design products are greatly at work. Festivals, ceremonies, and rituals that are done in the society rely extensively on his products. These activities are relayed to the general public through posters, banners, flyers, and billboards. Cultural fabrics are printed with symbolic patterns that portray and educate us about our rich cultural heritage.

Religious Roles

Religious activities of the various religious bodies in the country are effectively carried out as a result of Graphic products. The location of the various temples, churches, shrines, and cathedrals are as a result of the signboards, signposts, billboards and banners carefully situated at vantage points. Without them, it would be very difficult for people to find the locations of the countless religious associations in the country. The printed attires which help us to readily identify roles that members of the religious group play. How will a new person in the church, mosque or shrine identify the leader of the religious group if not through the printed attire that they wear? Those with duties such as ministerial duties like ushers are identified by the printed stoles that they put on. Members of youth, men and women’s associations of several churches are easily recognized through the T-Shirts and association’s printed cloth. The interiors and exteriors of religious buildings are lavishly decorated with several wall hangings, buntings etc.

Also, the numerous posters, banners, flyers and handbills that inform members of religious programs, meeting days and times, harvest and fund-raising ceremonies are made possible by the Graphic designer. Church items are safely kept because of the comprehensive labels that have been done on them. The stickers, key holders, bangles and other church paraphernalia that attracts and draws new members into the various religious groups are as a result of him.

In some religious denominations, special books which are believed to be ‘holy’ such as the Bible and the Koran are used for teaching and disseminating the doctrines of the religious bodies. It can be said without exaggeration that the Graphic designer assists greatly in the smooth flow of religious activities carried out by the various religious bodies in the country.

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Narcissism and Today’s Society

“It is not love that should be depicted as blind, but self – love.” – Voltaire

The subject of ‘Narcissism’ has intrigued us for many decades, but social scientists now claim that it has become a “modern epidemic”. The term ‘Narcissism’ originated more than 2000 years ago when Ovid wrote the ‘Legend of Narcissus’, which tells the story of a beautiful Greek hunter, Narcissus, who, one day, sees his reflection in a pool of water and falls in love with it. He becomes obsessed with his own beauty and is unable to leave his reflected image until he dies. The concept of Narcissism was first introduced by the famous psychoanalyst, Dr. Sigmund Freud’s essay ‘On Narcissism’. He popularized this new concept through his work on the ‘ego’ and its relation to the outside world. Narcissism can be defined as the pursuit of gratification from vanity or egotistic admiration of one’s own attributes. The ‘American Psychiatry Association’ has classified this as ‘Narcissistic Personality Disorder’ (NPD).

Narcissism lies on a continuum from healthy to pathological. Healthy narcissism is part of normal human functioning. It represents required self – love and confidence based on real achievements and the ability to overcome setbacks. But, narcissism becomes a problem when one becomes excessively preoccupied with the self and seeks complete admiration and attention, with complete disregard for others’ feelings. Lack of satisfaction of this need leads to substance abuse and major depressive disorders. In adolescents, this causes ‘Substance Dependency Disorder’ (SDD) – they display overt narcissistic and prosocial behaviours, which show a connection between self – centeredness and addiction. These substances include sedatives like alcohol, psychedelics and hallucinogens like marijuana and LSD, stimulants like cocaine, narcotics like opium, heroin, and morphine, and anti-anxiety drugs like Xanax.

“Narcissists unconsciously deny an unstated and intolerably poor self – image through inflation. They turn themselves into glittering figures of immense grandeur, surrounded by psychologically impenetrable walls. The goal of this self – deception is to be impervious to greatly feared external criticism, and to their own rolling sea of doubts.” This is how Elan Golomb describes NPD, in her book ‘Trapped in the Mirror’. The narcissists fail to achieve intimacy with anyone as they view other people like items in a vending machine, and uses them to serve their own needs, never being able to acknowledge that others might have their own feelings too.

Narcissism is filled with irony and paradox, whether as a character trait or as a clinical disease. Emily Levine says, “I thought Narcissism was about self – love till someone told me there is a flip – side to it… it is unrequited self – love.” It must be remembered that, Narcissus weeps to find out that his image does not return his love. This indicates that, a loving engagement with the self does not, and cannot, come from putting on lofty airs, acting with self – satisfied arrogance or being obsessed with assorted fantasies of ideal brilliance or beauty. Healthy, non – egotistical self – love arises from an unconditional acceptance of the self, without having to declare superiority over others. Deep down, the narcissists know, albeit unconsciously, that they are not really what they project. In fact, one of their central defenses is to endlessly project onto others the very flaws and fears that they are unable or unwilling, to allow into awareness. They are critical of others’ shortcomings, but completely blind to their own – their self – love must be seen as an illusion, a spectacular triumph of self – deception. They can only love their false, idealized self – a mirage that cannot possibly return the fantasy – laden love. Their flawed self, hidden beneath their outward bravado, remains locked up and placed in permanent exile. And, to continuously safeguard themselves from a reality that so frequently contradicts their grandiose assumptions and pretensions, they are forced to employ a massive defense stratagem, with extraordinary rigidity.

Although very few of us are actually diagnosed with NPD, almost all of us are guilty of sharing certain narcissistic tendencies. So, Todd Solondz says, “Narcissism and self – deception are survival mechanisms without which many of us might just jump off the bridge.” For true narcissists, the defenses are absolutely necessary to compensate their ego deficits and reduce feelings of shame. Without them, they might result in a state of suicidal depression; for, narcissists do not really like themselves – the more they boast and demean others, they are more likely to cover up for their deeper, largely hidden feelings of inferiority and lack of love. Blinded by their idealized self – image, they try to project themselves as gifted, exceptional and unique – that in turn makes them egotistical and arrogant. According to TS Eliot, “… half the harm that is done in this world is due to people who want to feel important. They don’t mean to do harm but the harm [that they cause] does not interest them. Or they do not see it or they justify it because they are absorbed in the endless struggle to think well of themselves.” This shows a distinction between narcissists who are malevolent, and those who simply lack concern of how their behaviour might adversely affect others. It is yet another way of gaining attention to their supreme self – absorption, which makes it impossible for them to identify with others’ feelings.

Kurt Cobain says, “I don’t care what you think, unless it is about me.” This shows the narcissist’s indifference to the outer world unless it specifically relates to them. They are completely incapable of a genuine interest in others’ matters unless they are needed for the former’s assertion of superiority. Narcissists are also great con – artists; after all, they always succeed in deceiving themselves. It becomes particularly painful when they suffer from memory loss, when, they lose out parts of the person they love the most. In general, a narcissist “devours people, consumes their output, and casts the empty, wreathing shells aside”, says Sam Vaknin. Hate is a complement of fear, and the narcissists like being feared – it provides them with an intoxicating sensation of omnipotence. The difference between Narcissism and self – love is a matter of depth. Narcissus falls in love not with the self, but with an image or reflection of the self, with the persona, the mask. Narcissists see themselves through the eyes of others, changes their lifestyle and behaviour and expression of feelings, according to others’ admiration. Narcissism is voluntary blindness, an agreement not to look beneath the surface. Yet, Oscar Wilde says, “To love oneself is the beginning of a life – long romance” – this notion of self – love leans towards the pathological and the auto – erotic as well.

Prof. Jean Twenge differentiates narcissism from the idea of self – esteem. One high in self – esteem, values individual achievements, but they also value their relationships and caring for others. Contrarily, narcissists miss out on valuing and caring their relationships, as they lack empathy. Prof. Twenge and Keith Campbell, a specialist on Narcissism, joined hands to investigate whether people born in more recent generations score higher against Narcissism measures, than in previous generations. The tool they used to assess their subjects is the ‘Narcissistic Personality Inventory’ (NPI), created in 1988. It is the most widely used measure of Narcissism in social – psychological research, where a 40 item forced – choice version is the one most commonly employed.I Following Freud’s and Kohurt’s theories, individuals would be diagnosed clinically as patients of NPD, if they fulfil the following criteria:

A. Grandiose sense of self – importance or uniqueness

B. Preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love

C. Exhibitionism

D. Cold indifference of marked feelings of rage, inferiority, shame, humiliation or emptiness in response to criticism, indifference of others or defeat

E. At least, two of the following characteristic disturbances in inter – personal relationships:

I. Entitlement – expectation of special favour without assuming reciprocal responsibilities

II. Inter – personal exploits

III. Relationships that characteristically alternate between the two extremes of overidealisation and devaluation

IV. Lack of empathy

F. Vulnerability to shame, rather than guilt

G. Denial of remorse or gratitude

In this regard, reference can be made to Hotchkiss’s ‘Seven deadly Sins of Narcissism’, which include shamelessness, magical thinking, arrogance, envy, entitlement, exploitation, bad boundaries.

The ‘narcissistic dilemma’ is seen when, being criticized, the narcissists show themselves pitifully incapable of retaining any emotional poise or receptivity. But, these disturbed individuals also display an abnormally developed capacity to criticize others. Their dilemma is that the rigidity of their defenses, their inability ever to let their guard down, even among their closest people, guarantees that they will never get what they most need, which unfortunately, they are themselves oblivious to. People are never born narcissist, it is powerful environmental influences that make them so. Being neglected and ignored, or constantly disparaged or berated by parents in childhood, they form unrealistically high standards of behaviour. Unable to meet up to their parents’ unreasonable, perfectionist expectations, they create an imaginary “ideal self” that could receive the parental acceptance, even adulation, which they yearn for. The main elements of narcissism are narcissistic supply, narcissistic rage and narcissistic injury, and narcissistic abuse. Narcissism can be of various types, and its causes are not yet well – known. Inherited genetic defects are thought to be responsible in some cases, along with environmental factors –

1. Childhood abuse or neglect

2. Excessive parental pampering

3. Unrealistic expectation from parents

4. Sexual promiscuity

5. Cultural influences

A study shows the changes in levels of Narcissism over the past few decades, among the college – going students, i.e. the youth; it is seen rampant in the society of USA today, because these youths are the future leaders, and Narcissism is very harmful to the society as a whole and can cause failure in academic and other endeavours. Twenge and Campbell conducted a survey in American institutions from 1979 – 2006 and found an upward shift in scores on the NPI, meaning that, now the average college student embraces narcissistic tendencies more than their counterparts, two decades ago. The rise in Narcissism in the American population might be because now, from a young age, Americans are taught that they are very special and unique, that in turn increases their self – esteem. Extroversion and assertion are the key factors of Narcissism. It is also due to the large emphasis on materialism and wealth, with a focus on individual’s pleasure and success, in the current American society.

Today, Narcissism has gripped the entire world, as indicated by the rapid change in society that occurred during the industrial and post – industrial times. The past few decades have witnessed a societal shift from a commitment to the collective to a focus on the individual or self. Here comes in the ‘self – esteem movement’ which became the key to success in life. The parents tried to “confer” self – esteem upon their children rather than allowing them to achieve it through hard work. The rise of individualism and the decline in social norms that accompanied the modernization of society, led to a shift from the concept of what is best for the others and family to what is best for “me”. The commercial world with total focus on wealth and fame, created an “empty self, shorn of social meaning”. Today, the generation of young adults – the ‘Generation Y’ – also known as the ‘Millenials’ and ‘Generation Me’, comprising of individuals born between 1975 – 1995, are condemned for being narcissistic, selfish, self – entitled, and having unrealistic expectations from life.

The rise in technology and the advancement of immensely popular social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, MySpace, YouTube have changed the way we now spend our leisure time and communicate with others. Internet addiction is a new area of study in mental health and many researchers show that addiction to Facebook, Twitter is strongly linked to narcissistic behaviour and low self – esteem. The notion that the current generation is increasingly becoming narcissistic, as a product of the “like effect” (a theory where the number of ‘likes’ on social media produce greater self – esteem) has been widely debated. This effect creates negative self – esteem contrary to egotism due to modern youths constantly comparing the quantity of ‘likes’ or the quality of a picture to that of another. The ego can never be satisfied with increasing number of ‘likes’. Also, the total control over one’s perception of social media allows modern youth to see an unrealistic, distorted image that they will compare themselves to. Thus, regular posting of ‘selfies’ on social media promotes Narcissism, that is actually a cry of ego – satisfaction. Social networking sites are believed to be outlets for narcissistic expression, and Gen Y, aged between 17 – 21 years, are particularly vulnerable to its negative effects. Lucy Clyde says, “If you are a narcissist, you are looking for a positive reflection of yourself, the world is your mirror and you are constantly looking for affirmation. For this reason, you’re probably curating your own life very heavily on social media.”

Named ‘Word of the Year’ in 2013 by the Oxford English Dictionary, the term “selfie” has become very common among all teens and young adults, in today’s technological era. A “selfie” is defined as “a photograph that one has taken of oneself, typically one taken by a smartphone or a webcam, and shared via social media”. For Gen Y, taking selfies and posting them on social media has become inevitable parts of daily living, promoting Narcissism. Millenials, aged 18 – 33 years, are hyper – connected with little awareness or concern for the others. “Generation Me”, today, is a victim of the ‘Selfie Syndrome’ – they post, tag and comment on self – portraits, believing that others are interested in their daily activities, and they want to tell others what they are doing. Selfies symbolize that shamelessly flaunting your Narcissism is trendy; if you put an inspirational quote under your selfie, no one can see your Narcissism. A selfie a day keeps insecurities away – “constantly taking selfies will not make you prettier; may you someday find someone to love you as much as your selfies indicate you love yourself.” Today, the confidence level is measured by “a selfie with no filter”. Never before has a generation so diligently recorded themselves, accomplishing so little – “if you could take selfies of your souls, would you find it attractive enough to post?”

It seems, those people who constantly post selfies must not own mirrors like the rest of us; but again, mirrors should not be taken too seriously, as one’s true reflection is in his heart. Increase in Narcissism pose a threat to the emotional and psychological health of the youth – it results in self – enhancement and self – promotion, preventing them from establishing lasting intimate relationships. Also, they tend to be prone to respond with violent and aggressive behaviour after being criticized. Online relationships may appeal more to narcissists, who are otherwise unable to, or unwilling, to form meaningful relations that demand any time or emotional attachment. The increase of smartphones and many new sophisticated gadgets allow people to access social media very easily, contributing to widespread Narcissism. Managing and revising one’s online profile content is a vital aspect of the youth’s online identity and “e – personality”. Social networking sites give narcissistic individuals the chance to keep the focus of their profile’s content solely on themselves. By this, they post status updates, comments and photos that depict only themselves, and not others, perpetuating their selfish nature. The online profiles allow them to achieve a type of social identity that they wish to portray, through exaggeration of certain character traits, and present a persona that they believe is appealing to the world, at large.

Lack of empathy for others cause preoccupation with the Gen Y’s own frustrated selves and emotional distresses, while growing up – they go out of their houses, but focused on themselves only, taking selfies – and thus, can never completely come out of their own selves. They lose out on moral values, and find it difficult to come out of their own fears. The increasing demand for plastic surgeries, worldwide, to look better in the eyes of others, is also an unfortunate consequence of the rise of Narcissism. They always remain emotionally and spiritually unfulfilled, hungry for a nebulous something they cannot even conceive, and project a constant detachment in all relationships, even in the most intimate ones.

Treatment of ‘Narcissistic Personality Disorder’ (NPD) is possible through psychotherapy, or talk – therapy. But Narcissism has certain beneficial effects too. It has a fundamental connection with leadership, as both the notions have the common factors – dominance, extroversion, confidence and power. Because of these, narcissists become good and successful leaders, provoked by their desire for self – assertion, glory and power. But today, individualism is co – related to materialism and Narcissism. So, together, the world’s Narcissism is huge – the collective Narcissism results in the destruction of the planet. Together, we are wiping out one species after another from this world, fuelled by consumerism and our growing self – importance. Our Narcissism may eventually turn out to be our Nemesis, in the end.

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The Importance of Social Networking in Our Society

Time flies quickly, a few years ago people tend to communicate using wired gadgets such as telephones or ham radios. Today, the internet has reshaped our world beyond our imagination. People now uses desktop or laptop computers not just for work but also for entertainment and communication as well.

Part of the ever growing popularity of the world wide web as a new means of communication is the advent of social networking sites. These are proprietary websites that can be used by common people to post personal profiles, pictures, videos, music and messages. Users of social networking sites can invite other “friends” to join their network to be able to view and share personal information on one another.

There are several social networking sites today, among the popular ones are Facebook, MySpace and Twitter. Most members of these sites are teenagers who just love the company of friends and other people. However, did you know how important social networking sites are?

1. Keeping in touch

By maintaining a profile on these sites, your loved ones, friends and distant relatives don’t have to call you every time just to stay in touch with one another. One can take advantage of posting messages, images and personal videos of themselves for their loved ones to see over and over again. It’s cheap, fast and real time technology available to everyone.

2. Job hunting

Several companies in the US and Europe are taking advantage of social networking sites to get competent employees. On the other hand, job applicants take advantage of these sites to post their resume and credentials. It’s a great tool one can use in order to make a good impression to a company. If you’re applying for a computer related job, it would be great to maintain a personal profile.

3. Emergency

Have you heard of several thousands of individuals saved using social networking sites? Twitter has been a great tool for many to relay messages to thousands of concerned citizens in a snap in times of tragedy and natural calamities. People who seek fund raising and donation can use Facebook or MySpace sites to call unto generous individuals.

Many people consider these sites as a work of the devil. It could be. However, one must realize that anything can become good or bad depending on the person’s intentions. Social networking sites has shaped our world whether we like it or not and it will become an indispensable tool if it’s used for good purposes.

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What is a Monocultural Society?

Do you live in a mono-cultural or multi-cultural society?. Often we find it difficult to define. What is a mono- cultural society?

Most experts agree that the essential traits of a mono-cultural society are a common heritage, belief structure, language and usually a mono-racial identity. Since we live in a more globalized World, many of our societies are essentially multi-cultural. But still many of today’s societies still share the common traits of a mono-cultural society.

What are these common traits?

1. A common heritage

The historical heritage of the society could be based on a perception that the nations, food, language, attitudes, racial features and religious beliefs are an essential element to the nations identity.

2. A shared belief structure

The majority of the citizens of a country have a shared belief structure, based on the nation’s heritage. These beliefs form the national identity, and ‘psyche,’ which create to many a stronger bonded society, but to detractors a nation which loses out on the benefits of a multi-cultural ethnic society.

3. An inward looking ‘psyche’

To many, mono-cultural societies tend to look inwards, rather than outwards, and this can show in the nation’s culture. Television programs and news tends to be locally centered, and the cultures identity heavily promoted. A degree of ignorance of the outside World is often a product of looking inwards.

4. A suspicion of “foreigners”

The ‘psyche” of a mono-cultural society often can be suspicious towards “foreigners,” and unacceptable of their beliefs. This could lead to discouraging multi-cultural partnerships, to a ‘ghetto’ mentality of separating cultures through the areas they can live.

5. Common religious values

Whilst in some societies religion is seen as being less important, other cultures see it as part of their national or ethnic identity. A strong mono-cultural official religion often is a strong trait of a this type of society..

6. Tribalism

Citizens of strong multi-cultural societies tend to be more tribal when they live outside their own culture. Multi- cultural marriages are unacceptable, the neighbors, the food and even the workplace tends to be ‘tribal.” – the influence of the new society lessened by this strong cultural bond, between others who share it.

7. Purchasing Goods

Mono- cultural societies tend to support their own products, rather than purchase products from other nations. They tend to be proud of their industries, and economic achievements- encouraging buying nationally produced products over others. This is beneficial in a recession, but in an expanding economy can hinder the choice consumers have.

Mono-cultural societies tend to feel safer, as long as you are identified as “one of the group,” but also conservative when it comes to accepting change. Whilst threatened, these societies tend to bond together faster, but also can be guilty of the worse types of ethnic abuse.

Historic examples could be the Armenian holocaust by Turkey, or the past bloodshed in the Balkans, and Rwanda- Events that generally do not occur in more modern multi-ethnic societies, which accept the differences in ideas, and beliefs.

Recessions often create a more mono-cultural outlook in societies, were suddenly even in multi-cultural societies fault lines can appear- often in the guise of competition for jobs and economic rights. However despite economic hardship, without the color, music and openness of a multi-cultural society- we would live in a very dull and limited World.

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